Glossary

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GLOSSARY OF WIRE ROPE TERMS

Abrasion
Frictional surface wear on the wires of a wire rope
Acceleration Stress
The additional stress that is imposed on a wire rope as a result of an increase in the load velocity
Aggregate Strength
The strength derived by totalling the individual breaking strengths of the elements of the strand or rope. This strength does not give recognition to the reduction in strength resulting from the angularity of the elements in the rope, or other factors that may affect efficiency
Aircraft Cables
Strands, cords and wire ropes made of special strength wire primarily for aircraft controls and miscellaneous uses of Aircraft Industry
Alternate Lay
Lay of a wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and Lang Lay
Area, Metallic
Sum of the cross-sectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand
Armored Rope
Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire
Back-Stay
Guy used to support a boom or mast: or that section of a main cable, as on a suspension bridge, cable-way, etc., leading from the tower to the anchorage
Becket Loop
A loop of small rope or strand fastened to the end of a larger wire rope, used to facilitate wire rope installation
Bending Stress
Stress imposed on wires of a wire rope by bending
Boom Hoist Line
Wire rope that operates the boom hoist system of derricks, cranes, draglines, shovels, etc.
Breaking Strength (aggregate wire)
The sum of the breaking strength in tension of all the wires of a wire rope when the wires are tested individually
Breaking Strength (wire rope)
Breaking strength is the ultimate load which a tensile failure occurs in the sample of wire rope being tested. (Note: The term breaking strength is synonymous with actual strength.) Minimum Acceptance Strength is that strength which is 2-1/ 2% lower than the catalog or nominal strength. This tolerance is used to offset variables that occur during sample preparation and actual physical test of a wire rope. Nominal Strength is the published (catalog) strength calculated by a standard procedure that is accepted by the wire rope industry. The wire rope manufacturer designs wire rope to this strength and the user should consider this strength when making design calculations.
Bridle Sling
A two-part wire rope sling attached to a single part line. The legs of the sling are spread to divide and equalize the load
Bronze Rope
Wire rope made of bronze wires (not coated with zinc, tin, or any other protective metal)
Button Conveyor Rope
Wire ropes to which buttons or discs are attached at regular intervals to move material in a trough
Cable
A term loosely applied to wire ropes, wire strands, and electrical conductors
Cable-Laid Wire Rope
A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope
Centers
Wire, strand or fiber in the center of a strand about which the wires are laid
Choker
Short wire rope sling used to form a slip noose around the object to be moved or lifted
Classification
Group or family designation based on wire rope constructions with common strengths and weights listed under the broad designation.
Clevis
A "U" shaped fitting with pin (also Shackle)
Clip
Fitting for clamping two parts of wire rope to each other.
Come-Along
Device for making a temporary grip on a wire rope
Common Strand
Galvanized strand made of galvanized iron wire whose grade is common iron
Conical Drum
Grooved hoisting drum of tapering diameter
Construction
Design of wire rope including number of strands, number of wires per strand and arrangement of wires in each strand
Continuous Bend
Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in the same direction, as opposed to reverse bend
Conveyor Rope
Parallel endless wire ropes used to carry material
Cord
Term applied to small sizes of wire ropes
Core
Member of a wire rope about which the strands are laid. It may be fiber, a wire strand or an independent wire rope
Coring Line
Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well
Corrosion
Chemical decomposition of the wires of a rope by exposure to moisture, acids, alkalines or other destructive agents
Critical Diameter
Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope which permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal position
Cylindrical Drum
Hoisting drum of uniform diameter
Deceleration Stress
Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to decreasing the velocity of the load
Diameter
Distance measured across the center of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope
Dog-Leg
Permanent short bend or kink in a wire rope caused by improper use
Drum
A cylindrical flanged barrel of uniform or tapering diameter on which rope is wound for operation or storage. It may be smooth or grooved
Efficiency (wire rope)
Percentage ratio of measured breaking strength of a wire rope to the aggregate strength of all individual wires tested separately
Elastic Limit
Limit of stress above which a permanent deformation takes place within the material
Endless Rope
Rope whose two ends are spliced together
Equalizing Thimbles
Special type of fitting used as a component part of some wire rope slings
Extra High Strength Strand
A grade of galvanized or bright strand
Eye or Eye Splice
A loop with or without a thimble formed in the end of a wire rope
Factor of Safety
Ratio of breaking strength of a wire rope to total rope stress
Fatigue
Term commonly applied to progressive fracture of wires of a rope
Fiber Cores
Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber or synthetic fiber used in the core of a wire rope
Filler Wire
Small auxiliary wires in a strand for spacing and positioning other wires
Fitting
Any accessory used as an attachment for wire rope
Flat Rope
Wire rope made of parallel alternating right lay and left lay ropes sewn together by relatively soft wires
Fleet Angle
Angle between position of a rope at the extreme end wrap on a drum, and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave
Galvanize
To coat with zinc to protect against corrosion
Galvanized Rope
Rope made of galvanized wire
Galvanized Strand
Strand made of galvanized wire
Galvanized Wire
Wire coated with zinc
Grades, Rope
Classification of wire rope by its breaking strength. In order of increasing breaking strengths they are Iron, Traction, Mild Plow Steel, Plow Steel, Improved Plow Steel, Extra Improved Plow Steel
Grades, Strand
Classification of strand by its breaking strength. In order of increasing breaking strengths they are Common, Siemens Martin, High Strength and Extra-high Strength. A Utilities grade strand is also made to meet special requirement
Grooved Drum
Drum with grooved surface to accommodate and guide the rope
Grooves
Depressions in the periphery of a sheave or drum for positioning and supporting a rope
Guard Rail Cable
A galvanized wire rope or strand erected along a highway
Guy Line
Strand or rope, usually galvanized, for holding a structure in position
High Strength Strand
Grade of galvanized or bright strand
Idler
Sheave or roller used to guide or support a rope
Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)
Wire rope used as the core of a larger rope
Internally Lubricated
Wire rope or strand having all wires coated with lubricant
Kink
Sharp bend in a wire rope that permanently distorts the wires and strands
Lagging
External wood covering on a reel of rope or strand
Lang Lay Rope
Wire rope in which the wires in the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction
Lay
Manner in which wires are helically laid into strands or strands into rope
Left Lay
(a) Strand
Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch -(b) RopeRope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch
Marline Spike
Tapered steel pin used in splicing wire rope
Messenger Strand
Galvanized strand or bronze strand used to support telephone and electric cables
Modulus of Elasticity
Mathematical quantity giving the ratio, within the elastic limit, between a definite range of unit stress on a wire rope, to the corresponding elongation
Mooring Lines
Galvanized wire rope, usually 6x12, 6x24 or spring lay construction, for holding ships to dock
Non-Rotating Wire Rope
18x7 wire rope consisting of a 6x7 left lay
Peening
Permanent distortion of outside wire in a rope caused by pounding
Preece Test
A recognized standard of testing the galvanized coating on wire
Preformed Strand
Strand in which the wires are permanently shaped, before fabrication in the strands, to the helical form they assume in the strand
Preformed Wire Rope
Wire rope in which the strands are permanently shaped, before fabrication into the rope, to the helical form they assume in the wire rope
Prestretching
Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that the constructional stretch is largely removed
Reel
The flanged spool on which wire rope or strand is wound for storage or shipment
Regular Lay Rope
Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in opposite directions
Reserve Strength
Strength represented by the inner wires of a wire rope
Reverse Bend
Reeving of a wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in opposite directions
Reverse Lay
synonymous with Alternate Lay
Right Lay
(a) Strand Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch, similar to a right-hand screw (b) Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a right-hand pitch, similar to a right-hand screw
Rollers
Relatively small diameter cylinders which are free to turn while supporting ropes
Safe Working Load
Proper load which the rope may carry economically and safely
Sash Cord
Term applied to small 6x7 wire ropes commonly made of iron, bronze or copper wires
Seale
A strand construction having one size of cover wires with the same number of one size of wires in the inner layer and each layer having the same length and direction of lay.
Seize
To bind securely the end of a wire rope or strand wfth seizing wire or strand
Seizing Strand
Small strand usually of 7 wires made of soft annealed wire
Seizing Wire
soft annealed wire
Serve
To cover the surface of a wire rope or strand with a wrapping of fiber cord
Shackle
A "U" shaped fitting with pin
Sheave
A grooved pulley for use with rope
Siemens-Martin Strand
A grade of galvanized strand
Slings
Wire ropes made into forms, with or without fittings, for handling loads and so made as to permit the attachment of an operating rope
Slings, Braided
A very flexible sling composed of several individual wire ropes braided into a single sling
Smooth Faced Drum
Drum with a plain face, not grooved
Spiral Groove
Groove which follows the path of a helix around the drum, as the thread of a screw
Splicing
Interweaving of two ends of ropes so as to make a continuous or endless length without appreciably increasing the diameter. Also making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands
Stainless Steel Rope
Wire rope made of chrome-nickel steel wires having great resistance to corrosion
Steel Clad Rope
Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire
Stone Sawing Strand
Usually a 3-wire strand used in quarrying stone or slate
Strand
An arrangement of wires helically laid about an axis. or another wire or fiber center to produce a symmetrical section
Swaged Fittings
Fittings in which wire rope is inserted and attached by cold flowing method
Tag Line
A small wire rope used to prevent rotation of a load
Tapered Drum
Grooved hoisting drum of tapering diameter
Tapering & Welding
Reducing the diameter of the end of a wire rope and welding it to facilitate reeving
Thimble
Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye of a wire rope
Tiller Rope/Cable
A very flexible operating rope, commonly made by cable laying six 6x7 ropes around a fiber core resulting in a 6x42 construction. Also a 3/32" 7x7 galvanized cable coated to an outside diameter of 3/16" with vinyl or nylon.
Tinned Wire
Wire coated with tin
Turnbuckle
Device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. It consists of a barrel and right and left hand threaded bolts
Warrington
A strand construction in which one layer of wires, usually the outer, is composed of alternating large and small wires
Wire (round)
Single continuous length of metal cold drawn from a rod
Wire Rope
A plurality of strands laid helically around an axis or a core

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